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Clare Bell (with additional content provided by the Lichtenstein
copyright The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 1993/1998
Oct. 27. Roy Fox Lichtenstein is born in Manhattan at Flower Hospital on
64th Street and Eastern Boulevard [now York Avenue], to Milton
and Beatrice (née Werner; 1896-1991). His father, who was born
is a real-estate broker for the Garage Realty Company. His mother, who
born in New Orleans, is a homemaker. They reside on the Upper West Side
Manhattan at 1457 Broadway (at 96th Street) until they move to 305 West
Street, where R.L. spends his childhood years.
Oct. Publication of André Breton's Le
Manifeste du Surréalisme (Manifesto of
Surrealism) in Paris, marking the official beginning of the Surrealist
Nov. 26. George
Segal is born in Manhattan.
April. The Bauhaus,
an experimental school for the arts founded in 1919
under the direction of Walter Gropius, moves from Weimar to Dessau after
severe harassment by the new right-wing regional government.Its faculty
includes such major artists as Josef Albers, Vasily Kandinsky, Paul
and Oskar Schlemmer.
Oct. 22. Ernest Milton Rauschenberg
is born in Port Arthur, Texas. (He
begins to use the name Bob starting in 1957 and eventually adopts the
Jan. Cahiers d'Art is first published in Paris. Founded by Christian
the magazine features artists of the European avant-garde and has wide
Aug. 15. Willem de Kooning (born in 1904 in Rotterdam) arrives in
from Holland, a stowaway on the S.S. Shelly, and soon after sets up a
and residence in Hoboken, New Jersey. (He moves to West 42nd Street in
York in 1927.)
Aug. 23. Allan
Kaprow is born in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
Dec. 17. R.L.'s sister Renée is born.
Dec. 27. Albert
Eugene Gallatin, a collector and artist, opens Gallery of
Living Art in New York's Greenwich Village. Gallatin frequently visits
artists in Paris (including Joan Miró, Piet Mondrian, and Pablo
buys their works for his gallery.
R.L. attends kindergarten near 104th Street and West End Avenue and
through 7 at P.S. 9 (84th Street and West End Avenue).
Aug. 6. Andrew
Warhola is born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (He begins to
use the surname Warhol in 1949.)
Sept. 13. Robert Clark is born in New Castle, Indiana. (He replaces his
surname with the name of his home state early in his career.)
Jan. 28. Claes Oldenburg is born in Stockholm, Sweden. (His family
in Chicago in 1934.)
Nov. 7-Dec. 7. Alfred H. Barr, Jr., organizes First Loan Exhibition:
Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Van Gogh for the opening of the Museum
Art (MoMA) in New York (730 Fifth Avenue).
R.L. develops a strong interest in drawing and science and spends
designing model airplanes. Listens to radio shows including "Flash
May 15. Jasper
Johns is born in Augusta, Georgia.
Tom Wesselmann is born in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Nov. 15-Dec. 5. The
Wadsworth Atheneum (Hartford) presents Newer
Super-Realism, organized by A. Everett Austin. The first important
exhibition of Surrealist work mounted in the U.S., it features works by
Salvador Dalí, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, André
Masson, Miró, Picasso,
Nov. 18-Jan. 2, 1932. Under Director Juliana Force, the Whitney
American Art (New York; 8 West 8th Street) mounts its first show,
Exhibition/Part I of the Permanent Collection: Painting and Sculpture.
Jan. 9-29. Julien
Levy Gallery (602 Madison Avenue) presents Surréalisme,
the first major exhibition in New York of Surrealist art.
MoMA moves to 11 West 53rd Street.
July 29. The
Bauhaus, which had moved to Berlin nine months earlier, closes
after conditions imposed by the Nazis make operation impossible.
Oct. German-born Hans
Hofmann opens his School of Fine Arts in New York (137
East 57th Street; it moves to 52 West 9th Street in 1936, then to 52
8th Street in 1938).
Nov. 28. Josef Albers arrives in North Carolina with his wife, Anni, to
new teaching position at the recently opened experimental school, Black
Nov. 29. James Rosenquist is born in Grand Forks, North Dakota.
June 16. James Dine is born in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Aug. Works Projects Administration/Federal Art Project (W.P.A./F.A.P.)
established as one of Roosevelt's New Deal relief projects, providing
for many artists, including de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, and Jackson
(The name is changed to Works Progress Administration in 1939.)
David Gascoyne's A Short Survey of Surrealism, the first
monograph on the movement, is published in London.
James Thrall Soby's After Picasso is published in New York. It is the
book on Surrealism published in the U.S.
R.L. begins 8th grade at Franklin School for Boys, a private school
at 18 West 89th Street in Manhattan.
Dec. 9-Jan. 17, 1937. Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism exhibition is
MoMA, organized by Barr. One section features comparative materials,
including commercial art, folk art, scientific objects, and art by
and the insane.
Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung publishes "The Work of Art in the
Mechanical Reproduction," German critic Walter Benjamin's influential
(written in 1935) concerning the role of art in an age of mass
Jan. 8-9. Picasso creates two satirical etchings, entitled Dream
and Lie of
Franco, each divided into nine panels like some of the comic strips
French newspapers of the period.
Feb. John Graham's book System and Dialectics of Art is published in
(and later in the year in New York, in an English-language edition). It
explores the role of accident and the unconscious in the creative
automatic writing, improvisation, and ancient art, and later becomes an
important influence on the Abstract Expressionists.
July 12. Picasso presents his 26-foot-long mural Guernica
at the Spanish
Republican Pavilion of the Paris World's Fair.
R.L.enrolls in Saturday morning watercolor classes at Parsons
Design in Manhattan (66 Fifth Avenue).
Jan.-Feb. Breton and poet Paul Éluard organize Exposition
surréalisme at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Lining the
to the exhibition is the "Surrealist Street," which consists of female
mannequins outfitted by Jean Arp, Dalí, Marcel Duchamp, Ernst,
Miró, Man Ray, Masson, and others.
May 31. The Museum of Non-Objective Painting (New York; 24 East
opens under the directorship of Hilla Rebay von Ehrenwiesen, featuring
by Rudolf Bauer, Juan Gris, Kandinsky, Fernand Léger, and
Autumn. Partisan Review publishes Clement Greenberg's article
Nov. 15-Jan. 7, 1940. MoMA
presents Picasso: Forty Years of His Art, curated
Chronology continues decade by decade through the links on the upper
left of this page.
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